Water Terms

A B C D E F G H M R T U W

Activated Carbon
AKA: GAC, Carbon, Activated Coal, Charcoal, Activated Charcoal
A widely used water treatment medium commonly used for dechlorination, organics removal and other specialty processes. Base products include but not limited to bituminous coal, coconut and lignite.

Alkalinity
AKA: Dealkalizer, Alkaline Water, M-Alkalinity, P-Alkalinity
The quantitative capacity of water to neutralize an acid; that is, the measure of how much acid can be added to a liquid without causing a significant change in pH. Alkalinity is not the same as pH because water does not have to be strongly basic (high pH) to have high alkalinity. In the water industry, alkalinity is expressed in mg/L of equivalent calcium carbonate.

Anion Resin
AKA: SBA, Strong Base Anion, WBA, Weak Base Anion, Tannin Resin, Type 1 Anion, Type II Anion, Organic Scavenger Resin
An ion with a negative charge. Anion Exchange is an ion exchange process in which anions in solution are exchanged for other anions from an ion exchanger.

Bed
AKA: Resin Bed, Filter Bed, Softener Bed, Softner Bed
The mass or volume of ion exchange resin or other media through which the water passes in the process of water treatment.

Brine
AKA: Salt Solution, Saturated Brine
A strong solutions of salt(s), usually sodium chloride and other salts too. Potassium or sodium chloride brine is used in the regeneration state of cation and or anion exchange water treatment equipment. Sodium chloride brine saturation in an ion exchange softening brine tank is about 26 percent NaCI by weight at 60° F.

Brine Tank
AKA: Trash Can, Salt Bale, Brine Keeper, Salt Tank, Brine Maker, Brine Holding Tank, Brine Measuring Tank
A brine tank holds the brine solution used in conjunction with water treatment equipment. The brine is used to regenerate the resin.

Calcium Scale
Calcium is one of the principal elements making up the earth's crust. Calcium compounds, when dissolved, make water hard. The presence of calcium in water is a factor contributing to the formation of scale and insoluble soap curds, which are a means of clearly identifying hard water.

Catalyst
AKA: Catalytic
A substance that changes the speed or yield of a chemical reaction without being consumed or chemically changed by the chemical reaction.

Catalyst Media
Those filter media which can cause certain reactions to occur in water treatment, such as activated carbon, calcite, manganese greensand, manganese oxides, and dissimilar metal alloys.

Cation Resin
AKA: SAC, Strong Acid Cation, Softener Resin, WAC, Wek Acid Cation, Zeolite, Softener Beads, Softner Beads, Softner Resin
An ion with a positive charge. Cation Exchange is an ion exchange process in which cations in solution are exchanged for other cations from an ion exchanger.

De-alkalize
AKA: De-alkalization
The removal of alkalinity ions from a solution. A dealkalizer contains strong base anion exchange resin that exchanges chloride (the Cl ion of the NaCl) for carbonate, bicarbonate and sulfate. As water passes through the anion resin the carbonate, bicarbonate and sulfate ions are exchanged for chloride ions.

Decationize
AKA: Decationized Water
The exchange of cation for hydrogen ions by a strong acid cation exchanger operated in the hydrogen form.

Degasifier
AKA: Degasify, Degassing, Decarbonator, Forced Draft Degasifier, VOC Tower, Air Stripper
The removal of dissolved gasses such as carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen sulfide, and oxygen by: 1) subjecting the water to a pressure below atmospheric pressure (vacuum degassing) or 2) passing large amounts of air thoroughly through the water at atmospheric pressure (air stripping).

Deionizer
AKA: Demineralizer, Demin, DI
The removal of all ionized minerals and salts (both organic and inorganic) from a solution by a two-phase ion exchange procedure. First, positively charged ions are removed by a cation exchange resin in exchange for a chemically equivalent amount of hydrogen ions. Second, negatively charged ions are removed by an anion exchange resin for a chemically equivalent amount of hydroxide ions. The hydrogen and hydroxide introduced in this process unite to from water molecules. This process is also called demineralization by ion exchange.

Desilicizer
An ion exchange process designed for reduction of silica from a water supply. Typically a strong base anion exchanger operated in the OH- form is used.

DI Exchange Tanks
Tanks that are leased or rented to a facility lacking the means to regenerate the medium, usually ion exchange resin.

Effective Size
AKA: Mesh Size, Average Size
A measure of the diameter of particles in a media bed or resin bed. Effective size is that mesh size which will permit 10 percent of the bed's particles to pass and will retain that remaining 90 percent; in other words, that size for which 10 percent of the media grains or particles are smaller and 90 percent are larger.

Feedwater
AKA: Boiler Feed water, Makeup Water, Boiler Make up water
The water to be treated that is fed in to a given water treatment system.

Flowrate
AKA: GPM, Gallons Per Minute, M3/Hr, Feet per Second
The quantity of water or regenerant which passes a given point in a specified unit of time often expressed in US gpm (orL/min). In filter, flow rate is usually measured in gpm/sq. ft of bed area. In ion exchangers, it is expressed in gpm/cu.ft of resin. Flow rate is a critical design parameter by which the effectiveness of the water treatment unit is measured.

Groundwater
AKA: Well Water
Water found beneath the surface of the ground. Groundwater is primarily water which has seeped down from the surface by migrating through the interstitial spaces in soils and geologic formation.

Hardness
AKA: Hard Water
A common quality of water which contains dissolved compounds of calcium and magnesium and, sometimes, other divalent and trivalent metallic elements. The term hardness was originally applied to waters that were hard to wash in, referring to the soap wasting properties of hard water. Hardness prevents soap from lathering by causing the development of an insoluble curdy precipitate in the water; hardness typically causes the buildup of hardness scale (such as seen in cooking pans and in boilers). Dissolved calcium and magnesium salts are primarily responsible for most scaling. Hardness is usually expressed in grains per gallon (or ppm) as calcium carbonate equivalent.

Hydrogen Sulfide
AKA: Sulfur, Rotten Egg Smell, Sulphur
A corrosive and flammable gas often found dissolved in well water and often accompanied by iron and low pH values. The odor of water with as little as 0.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L) of hydrogen sulfide concentration is detectable by most people. Concentrations less than one mg/L gives the water a "musty" or "swampy" odor. Over one mg/L hydrogen sulfide concentration gives the water a "rotten egg" odor and makes the water corrosive to plumbing.

Makeup Water
AKA: Boiler Makeup Water
Treated water added to the water loop of a boiler circuit or cooling tower to make up for the water lost by steam leaks or evaporation.

Mixed Bed
AKA: Mixed Bed Resin, Mix Bed
The intermix of two or more filter or ion exchange products in the same vessel during a service run.

Re-bed
Complete removal and replacement of the media or resin from a tank is considered a re-bed. Adding to a resin bed that may have lost resin is considered "topping off."

Regeneration
The use of a chemical solution (regenerant) to displace the contaminant ions deposited on the ion exchange resin during the service runs and replace them with the kind of ions necessary to restore the capacity of the exchange medium for reuse.

Resin
As used in the water processing industry, this term refers to ion exchange resin products which are usually specifically-manufactured organic polymer beads used in softening and other ion exchange processes to remove dissolved salts from water.

Tank
That part of a water treatment system that contains the filter medium or ion exchange resin.

Tannin
Any group of water soluble, natural organic phenolic compounds that are produced by metabolism in trees and plants, and are part of the degradation-resistant fulvic acid materials formed during the decomposition of vegetation. Tannins occur in water in almost any location where large quantities of vegetation have decayed. Tannins can impart a faintly yellowish to brown color to water. Tannin molecules tend to form anions in water above pH 6 and can then be treated with anion exchange resins. Below pH 5, tannins are better treated with activated carbon.

UV Light
Radiation (light) having a wavelength shorter than 3900 angstroms (Å), the wavelengths of visible light, and longer than 100 angstroms, the wavelengths of x-rays. This wavelength puts ultraviolet light at the invisible violet end of the light spectrum. Ultraviolet light is used as a disinfectant.

Water Softening
The reduction/removal of calcium and magnesium ions, which are the principal cause of hardness in water. The cation exchange resin method is most commonly water treatment. In municipal and industrial water treatment, the process can be lime softening or lime-soda softening.
Learn more about how you can have better water.

Latest Blog Posts

What Clients Say
Great employees, always have a good attitude and willing to help!
Culligan Customer
Amanda Gilman
- Culligan Customer
Edit Domain
id 274
domain culliganmn.com
name Culligan of Southern Minnesota
logo
type local
theme local
country US
status staging
facebook_link
twitter_link
youtube_link
instagram_link
blog_link
bill_pay_link https://www.culliganmn.com/services/online-bill-pay
bill_pay_text View or Pay Bill
location_pages ["774", "920", "955", "982", "1001", "1213", "1307", "1308"]
locations_in_navigation 1
google_api_key
google_analytics_id UA-208234982-1
google_optimize_container_id OPT-TM838BC
google_site_verification
cities ["Mankato MN", "Fairmont MN", "Jackson MN", "Madelia MN", "Redwood Falls MN", "Marshall MN", "Slayton MN", "Tracy MN", "Amboy MN", "East Chain MN"]
states ["Minnesota"]
regions ["southern Minnesota"]
keywords ["Culligan", "Culligan water filters", "Culligan water softeners", "Culligan reverse osmosis systems", "Culligan bottled water"]
emails []
forced_dealer_id
tracking_phone
integrations {"site_id": "1"}
ad_roll 0
dialogtech_sourcetrak_enabled 1
form_customization {}
meta []
notes []
created_at 2021-09-17 17:00:37
updated_at 2022-04-29 19:26:49
deleted_at
Edit Page
id 17
name Water Terms
link water-terms
full_link /help-guides/water-terms
external_link
target
parent_id 15
original_id
sort_weight 20
status published
type page
template single-column-with-sidebar
title Water Terms
subtitle
featured_image
icon fas fa-tasks
exclude_from_sitemap 0
components ["sidebar-water-problems", "sidebar-siblings", "sidebar-blogs", "call-to-action", "splash", "blogs", "testimonials"]
product_interest
meta {"icon":"fas fa-tasks","brief":"Have a question about a specific water term? Check out the list of water terms in our water dictionary.","title":"Water Terms, Definitions & Glossary | Culligan {{ $_domain->city(1) }}","rss_feed":"http:\/\/www.culligannation.com\/feed\/?cat=home-health","description":"A glossary of water related terms to assist you in researching Culligan's product line."}
created_at 2021-03-22 20:17:42
updated_at 2022-03-30 15:33:13
deleted_at
ID Title Link Parent Original Weight
1 Home Page / 0
2 Common Water Problems /water-problems 3000
3 Hard Water /water-problems/hard-water 2 10
4 Bad Tasting Water /water-problems/bad-tasting-water 2 30
5 High Iron Water /water-problems/high-iron-water 2 40
6 Acid Water /water-problems/acid-water 2 50
7 About Culligan /about 5000
8 Timer Settings & Manuals /help-guides/timer-settings-manuals 15 40
9 Culligan<sup>® </sup>Commercial & Industrial /culligan-products/industrial-commercial-water-treatment 31 999
11 Contact Your Culligan Man /contact-your-water-expert 6000
12 Culligan History /about/culligan-history 7 20
14 Culligan Services /services 2000
15 Help Guide /help-guides 4000
16 Answers to Common Water Questions /help-guides/water-faqs 15 10
17 Water Terms /help-guides/water-terms 15 20
18 Free Water Test /services/free-water-test 14 30
19 Water Quality Standards /help-guides/water-quality-standards 15 30
22 Smelly Water /water-problems/smelly-water 2 20
25 Service & Repair /services/culligan-service-repairs 14 50
26 Culligan Coupons & Special Promotions /services/culligan-coupons-specials 14 900
27 Culligan<sup>®</sup> Water Softeners /culligan-products/culligan-water-softeners 31 10
30 Search Results /search 0
31 Culligan Products /culligan-products 1000
33 Culligan<sup>®</sup> Whole Home Systems /culligan-products/culligan-whole-home-systems 31 30
34 Culligan<sup>®</sup> Reverse Osmosis Drinking Water Systems /culligan-products/culligan-reverse-osmosis-drinking-water-systems 31 40
35 Culligan<sup>®</sup> Bottleless Coolers /culligan-products/culligan-bottleless-coolers 31 50
36 Culligan<sup>®</sup> Bottled Water Coolers /culligan-products/culligan-bottled-water-coolers 31 60
37 Culligan<sup>®</sup> Bottled Water /culligan-products/culligan-bottled-water 31 70
39 Water and Salt Delivery /services/culligan-water-delivery 14 60
43 Your Local Culligan Dealer Results /dealer-locator 0
46 Privacy Policy /privacy-policy 0
80 Softener Bypass Videos /help-guides/bypass-videos 15 50
85 Customer Satisfaction Surveys /services/customer-satisfaction-surveys 14 80
183 Sitemap /site-structure 0
191 Hydration Calculator /help-guides/hydration-calculator-water-products 15 1000
255 Well Water Testing /services/well-water-testing 14 31
256 Culligan ClearLink PRO™ /clearlink-pro 0
259 Water Contaminants /water-problems/water-contaminants-101 2 0
261 Bottled Water Green Alternatives /bottled-water-green-alternatives 0
280 You don’t have to live with water problems. /solutions 0
295 Culligan Connect App /culligan-connect-app 0
305 Why Choose Culligan? /about/why-choose-culligan 7 30
367 Culligan COVID-19 Update /covid-19-update 0
443 Apply Online /about/careers/apply-online 45 0
591 Salt Delivery Sale /salt-sale 424 0
1333 Culligan<sup>®</sup> Water Filters /culligan-products/culligan-water-filters 31 32 20
1435 Culligan Connected Home /services/culligan-connected-home 14 379 2900
1446 Emergency Service /services/emergency-services 14 125 600
1649 Careers /about/careers 7 45 60
1650 Pay Bill Online /view-or-pay-bill 437 0
1651 Product Delivery Survey /product-delivery-survey 84 100
1652 Service and Repair Survey /service-repair-survey 83 80
1653 Locations /locations 272 5001
1657 Culligan® Portable Water Softener Exchange Service /culligan-products/portable-exchange-service 31 271 15
1679 Pay Online /services/online-bill-pay 14 58 999
1739 Chloride Reduction /services/chloride-reduction 14 228 70
2041 Accessibility Statement /accessibility-statement 0
9999774 /locations/redwood-falls-mn/774 272 15
9999920 /locations/fairmont-mn/920 272 10
9999955 /locations/jackson-mn/955 272 11
9999982 /locations/mankato-mn/982 272 13
99991001 /locations/slayton-mn/1001 272 16
99991213 /locations/tracy-mn/1213 272 17
99991307 /locations/madelia-mn/1307 272 12
99991308 /locations/marshall-mn/1308 272 14
ID Name Location Corp ID Actions
774 Culligan of Redwood Falls Redwood Falls, MN 22520
920 Culligan of Fairmont Fairmont, MN 22220
955 Culligan of Jackson Jackson, MN 22320
982 Culligan of Mankato Mankato, MN 22380
1001 Culligan of Slayton Slayton, MN 22577
1213 Culligan of Tracy Tracy, MN 22680
1307 Culligan of Madelia Madelia, MN 22610
1308 Culligan of Marshall Marshall, MN 22588
No Promotion Data
No Paid Search Data
17: single-column-with-sidebar